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【应用教程】你的桌面自平衡机器人-Zz
管理员 2018-11-27 14:29:11
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简单
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小 小 的 身 躯 —— 清 新 不 油 腻

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材料清单 材料清单
1x
n20带编码器金属齿轮减速电机V2 (30:1)
1x
miniQ小车橡胶轮
1x
3PI MiniQ N20电机支架
1x
FireBeetle原型扩展板
1x
TB6612FNG微型双路直流电机驱动模块
1x
DFRduino Pro Mini V1.2(16M5V328)
1x
3.7锂电池
1x
3v转5v升压模块
1x
锂电池充放电模块
1x
HC-SR04+超声波测距模块
1x
灰度巡线传感器

硬 件 篇

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Board Power Supply 3.35 -12 V (3.3V model) or 5 - 12 V (5V model) Circuit Operating Voltage 3.3V or 5V (depending on model) 8 MHz (3.3V versions) or 16 MHz (5V versions) 

Serial: 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). Used to receive (RX) and transmit (TX) TTL serial data. These pins are connected to the TX-0 and RX-1 pins of the six pin header. 

External Interrupts: 2 and 3. These pins can be configured to trigger an interrupt on a low value, a rising or falling edge, or a change in value. See the attachInterrupt function for details. 

PWM: 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, and 11. Provide 8-bit BWM output with the analogWrite function. 

SPI: 10 (SS), 11 (MOSI), 12 (MISO), 13 (SCK). These pins support SPI communication, which, although provided by the underlying hardware, is not currently included in the Arduino language. 

  

pro mini作为一款非常小巧的微控制器,大体了解到它的特性(蓝色字体标记)以及工作电压5v(供电是一个项目特别要考虑的指标)

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Zz的底盘是一块洞洞板,N20电机的输出轴露出洞洞板外(左右对称);

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烧录进代码:

代码 代码
	                    					#include "./PinChangeInt.h"
#include "./MsTimer2.h"
//利用测速码盘计数实现速度PID控制
#include "./BalanceCar.h"
#include "./KalmanFilter.h"
//I2Cdev、MPU6050和PID_v1类库需要事先安装在Arduino 类库文件夹下
#include "./I2Cdev.h"
#include "./MPU6050_6Axis_MotionApps20.h"
#include "Wire.h"
 
MPU6050 mpu; //实例化一个 MPU6050 对象,对象名称为 mpu
BalanceCar balancecar;
KalmanFilter kalmanfilter;
int16_t ax, ay, az, gx, gy, gz;
//驱动模块控制信号
#define IN1M A3
#define IN2M 7
#define IN3M A0
#define IN4M 8
#define PWMA A2
#define PWMB A1
#define STBY 6
 
#define PinA_left 3  //中断0
#define PinA_right 2 //中断1
 
//声明自定义变量
int time;
byte inByte; //串口接收字节
int num;
double Setpoint;                               //角度DIP设定点,输入,输出
double Setpoints, Outputs = 0;                         //速度DIP设定点,输入,输出
double kp = 40, ki = 0.1, kd = 0.3;                  //需要你修改的参数
double kp_speed =1.8, ki_speed = 0.05, kd_speed = 0;            // 需要你修改的参数
double kp_turn = 0, ki_turn = 0, kd_turn = 0;                 //旋转PID设定
const double PID_Original[6] = {38, 0.0, 0.58,4.0, 0.12, 0.0}; //恢复默认PID参数
//转向PID参数
double setp0 = 0, dpwm = 0, dl = 0; //角度平衡点,PWM差,死区,PWM1,PWM2
float value;
 
 
//********************angle data*********************//
float Q;
float Angle_ax; //由加速度计算的倾斜角度
float Angle_ay;
float K1 = 0.05; // 对加速度计取值的权重
float angle0 = 0.00; //机械平衡角
int slong;
//********************angle data*********************//
 
//***************Kalman_Filter*********************//
float Q_angle = 0.001, Q_gyro = 0.005; //角度数据置信度,角速度数据置信度
float R_angle = 0.5 , C_0 = 1;
float timeChange = 5; //滤波法采样时间间隔毫秒
float dt = timeChange * 0.001; //注意:dt的取值为滤波器采样时间
//***************Kalman_Filter*********************//
 
//*********************************************
//******************** speed count ************
//*********************************************
 
volatile long count_right = 0;//使用volatile lon类型是为了外部中断脉冲计数值在其他函数中使用时,确保数值有效
volatile long count_left = 0;//使用volatile lon类型是为了外部中断脉冲计数值在其他函数中使用时,确保数值有效
int speedcc = 0;
 
//////////////////////脉冲计算/////////////////////////
int lz = 0;
int rz = 0;
int rpluse = 0;
int lpluse = 0;
int sumam;
/////////////////////脉冲计算////////////////////////////
 
//////////////转向、旋转参数///////////////////////////////
int turncount = 0; //转向介入时间计算
float turnoutput = 0;
//////////////转向、旋转参数///////////////////////////////
 
//////////////Wifi控制量///////////////////
#define run_car     '1'//按键前
#define back_car    '2'//按键后
#define left_car    '3'//按键左
#define right_car   '4'//按键右
#define stop_car    '0'//按键停
/*小车运行状态枚举*/
enum {
  enSTOP = 0,
  enRUN,
  enBACK,
  enLEFT,
  enRIGHT,
  enTLEFT,
  enTRIGHT
} enCarState;
int incomingByte = 0;          // 接收到的 data byte
String inputString = "";         // 用来储存接收到的内容
boolean newLineReceived = false; // 前一次数据结束标志
boolean startBit  = false;  //协议开始标志
int g_carstate = enSTOP; //  1前2后3左4右0停止
String returntemp = ""; //存储返回值
boolean g_autoup = false;
int g_uptimes = 5000;
 
int front = 0;//前进变量
int back = 0;//后退变量
int turnl = 0;//左转标志
int turnr = 0;//右转标志
int spinl = 0;//左旋转标志
int spinr = 0;//右旋转标志
int bluetoothvalue;//蓝牙控制量
//////////////蓝牙控制量///////////////////
 
//////////////////超声波速度//////////////////
 
int chaoshengbo = 0;
int tingzhi = 0;
int jishi = 0;
 
//////////////////超声波速度//////////////////
void Code_left();
void Code_right();
//////////////////////脉冲计算///////////////////////
void countpluse()
{
 
  lz = count_left;
  rz = count_right;
 
  count_left = 0;
  count_right = 0;
 
  lpluse = lz;
  rpluse = rz;
 
  if ((balancecar.pwm1 < 0) && (balancecar.pwm2 < 0))                     //小车运动方向判断 后退时(PWM即电机电压为负) 脉冲数为负数
  {
    rpluse = -rpluse;
    lpluse = -lpluse;
  }
  else if ((balancecar.pwm1 > 0) && (balancecar.pwm2 > 0))                 //小车运动方向判断 前进时(PWM即电机电压为正) 脉冲数为负数
  {
    rpluse = rpluse;
    lpluse = lpluse;
  }
  else if ((balancecar.pwm1 < 0) && (balancecar.pwm2 > 0))                 //小车运动方向判断 前进时(PWM即电机电压为正) 脉冲数为负数
  {
    rpluse = rpluse;
    lpluse = -lpluse;
  }
  else if ((balancecar.pwm1 > 0) && (balancecar.pwm2 < 0))               //小车运动方向判断 左旋转 右脉冲数为负数 左脉冲数为正数
  {
    rpluse = -rpluse;
    lpluse = lpluse;
  }
 
  //提起判断
  balancecar.stopr += rpluse;
  balancecar.stopl += lpluse;
 
  //每5ms进入中断时,脉冲数叠加
  balancecar.pulseright += rpluse;
  balancecar.pulseleft += lpluse;
  sumam = balancecar.pulseright + balancecar.pulseleft;
}
////////////////////脉冲计算///////////////////////
 
 
 
//////////////////角度PD////////////////////
void angleout()
{
  balancecar.angleoutput = kp * (kalmanfilter.angle + angle0) + kd * kalmanfilter.Gyro_x;//PD 角度环控制
}
//////////////////角度PD////////////////////
 
//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//////////////////中断定时 5ms定时中断////////////////////
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
void inter()
{
  sei();
  countpluse();                                     //脉冲叠加子函数
  mpu.getMotion6(&ax, &ay, &az, &gx, &gy, &gz);     //IIC获取MPU6050六轴数据 ax ay az gx gy gz
  kalmanfilter.Angletest(ax, ay, az, gx, gy, gz, dt, Q_angle, Q_gyro, R_angle, C_0, K1);                                   //获取angle 角度和卡曼滤波
  angleout();                                       //角度环 PD控制
 
  speedcc++;
  if (speedcc >= 8)                                //40ms进入速度环控制
  {
    Outputs = balancecar.speedpiout(kp_speed, ki_speed, kd_speed, front, back, setp0);
    speedcc = 0;
  }
  turncount++;
  if (turncount > 4)                                //40ms进入旋转控制
  {
    turnoutput = balancecar.turnspin(turnl, turnr, spinl, spinr, kp_turn, kd_turn, kalmanfilter.Gyro_z);                              //旋转子函数
    turncount = 0;
  }
  balancecar.posture++;
  balancecar.pwma(Outputs, turnoutput, kalmanfilter.angle, kalmanfilter.angle6, turnl, turnr, spinl, spinr, front, back, kalmanfilter.accelz, IN1M, IN2M, IN3M, IN4M, PWMA, PWMB);                            //小车总PWM输出
  
}
//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//////////////////中断定时 5ms定时中断///////////////////
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
void SendAutoUp()
{
  g_uptimes --;
  if ((g_autoup == true) && (g_uptimes == 0))
  {
    //自动上报
    String CSB, VT;
    char temp[10]={0};
    float fgx;
    float fay;
    float leftspeed;
    float rightspeed;
    
    fgx = gx;  //传给局部变量
    fay = ay;  //传给局部变量
    leftspeed = balancecar.pwm1;
    rightspeed = balancecar.pwm2;
     
    double Gx = (double)((fgx - 128.1f) / 131.0f);              //角度转换
    double Ay = ((double)fay / 16384.0f) * 9.8f;
     
   if(leftspeed > 255 || leftspeed < -255)
      return;
   if(rightspeed > 255 || rightspeed < -255)
      return;
   if((Ay < -20) || (Ay > 20))
      return;
   if((Gx < -3000) || (Gx > 3000))
      return; 
       
    returntemp = "";
 
    memset(temp, 0x00, sizeof(temp));
    //sprintf(temp, "%3.1f", leftspeed);
    dtostrf(leftspeed, 3, 1, temp);  // 相當於 %3.2f
    String LV = temp;
     
    memset(temp, 0x00, sizeof(temp));
    //sprintf(temp, "%3.1f", rightspeed);
    dtostrf(rightspeed, 3, 1, temp);  // 相當於 %3.1f
    String RV = temp;
 
    memset(temp, 0x00, sizeof(temp));
    //sprintf(temp, "%2.2f", Ay);
    dtostrf(Ay, 2, 2, temp);  // 相當於 %2.2f
    String AC = temp;
      
    memset(temp, 0x00, sizeof(temp));
    //sprintf(temp, "%4.2f", Gx);
    dtostrf(Gx, 4, 2, temp);  // 相當於 %4.2f
    String GY = temp;
     
    CSB = "0.00";
    VT = "0.00";
    //AC =
    returntemp = "$LV" + LV + ",RV" + RV + ",AC" + AC + ",GY" + GY + ",CSB" + CSB + ",VT" + VT + "#";
    Serial.print(returntemp); //返回协议数据包
  }
   
  if (g_uptimes == 0)
      g_uptimes = 5000;
}
 
 
// ===    初始设置     ===
void setup() {
  // TB6612FNGN驱动模块控制信号初始化
  pinMode(IN1M, OUTPUT);                         //控制电机1的方向,01为正转,10为反转
  pinMode(IN2M, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(IN3M, OUTPUT);                        //控制电机2的方向,01为正转,10为反转
  pinMode(IN4M, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(PWMA, OUTPUT);                        //左电机PWM
  pinMode(PWMB, OUTPUT);                        //右电机PWM
  pinMode(STBY, OUTPUT);                        //TB6612FNG使能
 
 
  //初始化电机驱动模块
  digitalWrite(IN1M, 0);
  digitalWrite(IN2M, 1);
  digitalWrite(IN3M, 1);
  digitalWrite(IN4M, 0);
  digitalWrite(STBY, 1);
  analogWrite(PWMA, 0);
  analogWrite(PWMB, 0);
 
  pinMode(PinA_left, INPUT);  //测速码盘输入
  pinMode(PinA_right, INPUT);
 
  // 加入I2C总线
  Wire.begin();                            //加入 I2C 总线序列
  Serial.begin(9600);                       //开启串口,设置波特率为 115200
  delay(1500);
  mpu.initialize();                       //初始化MPU6050
  delay(2);
  balancecar.pwm1 = 0;
  balancecar.pwm2 = 0;
  //5ms定时中断设置  使用timer2    注意:使用timer2会对pin3 pin11的PWM输出有影响,因为PWM使用的是定时器控制占空比,所以在使用timer的时候要注意查看对应timer的pin口。
  MsTimer2::set(5, inter);
  MsTimer2::start();
 
}
 
////////////////////////////////////////turn//////////////////////////////////
 
void ResetPID()
{
  kp = PID_Original[0];
  ki =  PID_Original[1];
  kd =  PID_Original[2];                     //需要你修改的参数
  kp_speed =  PID_Original[3];
  ki_speed =  PID_Original[4];
  kd_speed =  PID_Original[5];  // 需要你修改的参数
}
void ResetCarState()
{
  turnl = 0; 
  turnr = 0;  
  front = 0; 
  back = 0; 
  spinl = 0; 
  spinr = 0; 
  turnoutput = 0;
}
// ===       主循环程序体       ===
void loop() {
   
 String returnstr = "$0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0cm,8.2V#";  //默认发送
 
    //主函数中循环检测及叠加脉冲 测定小车车速  使用电平改变既进入脉冲叠加 增加电机的脉冲数,保证小车的精确度。
    attachInterrupt(0, Code_left, CHANGE);
    attachPinChangeInterrupt(PinA_right, Code_right, CHANGE);
    
    //kongzhi(); //蓝牙接口
    //
   
    //Serial.println(kalmanfilter.angle);
    //Serial.print("\t");
    //Serial.print(bluetoothvalue);
    //Serial.print("\t");
    //      Serial.print( balancecar.angleoutput);
    //      Serial.print("\t");
    //      Serial.print(balancecar.pwm1);
    //      Serial.print("\t");
    //      Serial.println(balancecar.pwm2);
    //      Serial.print("\t");
    //      Serial.println(balancecar.stopr);
    //      Serial.print("\t");
     
    if (newLineReceived)
    {
      switch (inputString[1])
      {
        case run_car:   g_carstate = enRUN;   break;
        case back_car:  g_carstate = enBACK;  break;
        case left_car:  g_carstate = enLEFT;  break;
        case right_car: g_carstate = enRIGHT; break;
        case stop_car:  g_carstate = enSTOP;  break;
        default: g_carstate = enSTOP; break;
      }
      //判断协议是否有丢包
    /* if(inputString.length() < 21)
      {
          //恢复默认
        inputString = "";   // clear the string
        newLineReceived = false;
        //Serial.print(returnstr);
        goto a;
      }*/
      if (inputString[3] == '1' && inputString.length() == 21) //左摇
      {
        g_carstate = enTLEFT;
        //Serial.print(returnstr);
      }
      else if (inputString[3] == '2' && inputString.length() == 21) //右摇
      {
        g_carstate = enTRIGHT;
       // Serial.print(returnstr);
      }
   
      if (inputString[5] == '1') //查询PID
      {
        char charkp[7], charkd[7], charkpspeed[7], charkispeed[7];
   
        dtostrf(kp, 3, 2, charkp);  // 相當於 %3.2f
        dtostrf(kd, 3, 2, charkd);  // 相當於 %3.2f
        dtostrf(kp_speed, 3, 2, charkpspeed);  // 相當於 %3.2f
        dtostrf(ki_speed, 3, 2, charkispeed);  // 相當於 %3.2f
   
        String strkp = charkp; String strkd = charkd; String strkpspeed = charkpspeed; String strkispeed = charkispeed;
   
        returntemp = "$0,0,0,0,0,0,AP" + strkp + ",AD" + strkd + ",VP" + strkpspeed + ",VI" + strkispeed + "#";
   
        Serial.print(returntemp); //返回协议数据包
      }
      else if (inputString[5] == '2') //恢复PID
      {
        ResetPID();
        Serial.print("$OK#"); //返回协议数据包
      }
   
      if (inputString[7] == '1') //自动上报
      {
        g_autoup = true;
        Serial.print("$OK#"); //返回协议数据包
      }
      else if (inputString[7] == '2') //停止自动上报
      {
        g_autoup = false;
        Serial.print("$OK#"); //返回协议数据包
      }
   
      if (inputString[9] == '1') //角度环更新 $0,0,0,0,1,1,AP23.54,AD85.45,VP10.78,VI0.26#
      {
        int i = inputString.indexOf("AP");
        int ii = inputString.indexOf(",", i);
        if(ii > i)
        {
          String m_skp = inputString.substring(i + 2, ii);
          m_skp.replace(".", "");
          int m_kp = m_skp.toInt();
          kp = (double)( (double)m_kp / 100.0f);
        }
        
   
        i = inputString.indexOf("AD");
        ii = inputString.indexOf(",", i);
        if(ii > i)
        {
          //ki = inputString.substring(i+2, ii);
          String m_skd = inputString.substring(i + 2, ii);
          m_skd.replace(".", "");
          int m_kd = m_skd.toInt();
          kd = (double)( (double)m_kd / 100.0f);
        }
        Serial.print("$OK#"); //返回协议数据包
      }
   
      if (inputString[11] == '1') //速度环更新
      {
        int i = inputString.indexOf("VP");
        int ii = inputString.indexOf(",", i);
        if(ii > i)
        {
          String m_svp = inputString.substring(i + 2, ii);
          m_svp.replace(".", "");
          int m_vp = m_svp.toInt();
          kp_speed = (double)( (double)m_vp / 100.0f);
        }
        
   
        i = inputString.indexOf("VI");
        ii = inputString.indexOf("#", i);
        if(ii > i)
        {
          String m_svi = inputString.substring(i + 2, ii);
          m_svi.replace(".", "");
          int m_vi = m_svi.toInt();
          ki_speed = (double)( (double)m_vi / 100.0f);
          Serial.print("$OK#"); //返回协议数据包
        }
        
      }
      //恢复默认
      inputString = "";   // clear the string
      newLineReceived = false;
   
    }
   
a:    switch (g_carstate)
    {
      case enSTOP: turnl = 0; turnr = 0;  front = 0; back = 0; spinl = 0; spinr = 0; turnoutput = 0; break;
      case enRUN: ResetCarState();front = 250; break;
      case enLEFT: turnl = 1; break;
      case enRIGHT: turnr = 1; break;
      case enBACK: ResetCarState();back = -250; break;
      case enTLEFT: spinl = 1; break;
      case enTRIGHT: spinr = 1; break;
      default: front = 0; back = 0; turnl = 0; turnr = 0; spinl = 0; spinr = 0; turnoutput = 0; break;
    }
   
   //增加自动上报
  SendAutoUp();
 
 
}
 
////////////////////////////////////////pwm///////////////////////////////////
 
 
 
//////////////////////////脉冲中断计算/////////////////////////////////////
 
void Code_left() {
 
  count_left ++;
 
} //左测速码盘计数
 
 
 
void Code_right() {
 
  count_right ++;
 
} //右测速码盘计数
 
//////////////////////////脉冲中断计算/////////////////////////////////////
 
//serialEvent()是IDE1.0及以后版本新增的功能,不清楚为什么大部份人不愿意用,这个可是相当于中断功能一样的啊!
int num1 = 0;
void serialEvent()
{
   
  while (Serial.available())
  {
    incomingByte = Serial.read();              //一个字节一个字节地读,下一句是读到的放入字符串数组中组成一个完成的数据包
    if (incomingByte == '$')
    {
      num1 = 0;
      startBit = true;
    }
    if (startBit == true)
    {
      num1++;
      inputString += (char) incomingByte;     // 全双工串口可以不用在下面加延时,半双工则要加的//
    }
    if (startBit == true && incomingByte == '#')
    {
      newLineReceived = true;
      startBit = false;
    }
     
    if(num1 >= 80)
    {
      num1 = 0;
      startBit = false;
      newLineReceived = false;
      inputString = "";
    }   
  }
}
 
/*备份*/
#if 0
char chartemp[7];
dtostrf(ax, 3, 2, chartemp);  // 相當於 %3.2f
String strax = chartemp;
strax = "\nax:" + strax;
 
memset(chartemp, 0x00, 7);
dtostrf(ay, 3, 2, chartemp);  // 相當於 %3.2f
String stray = chartemp;
stray = "\nay:" + stray;
 
memset(chartemp, 0x00, 7);
dtostrf(az, 3, 2, chartemp);  // 相當於 %3.2f
String straz = chartemp;
straz = "\naz:" + straz;
 
memset(chartemp, 0x00, 7);
dtostrf(gx, 3, 2, chartemp);  // 相當於 %3.2f
String strgx = chartemp;
strgx = "\ngx:" + strgx;
 
memset(chartemp, 0x00, 7);
dtostrf(gy, 3, 2, chartemp);  // 相當於 %3.2f
String strgy = chartemp;
strgy = "\ngy:" + strgy;
 
memset(chartemp, 0x00, 7);
dtostrf(gz, 3, 2, chartemp);  // 相當於 %3.2f
String strgz = chartemp;
strgz = "\ngz:" + strgz;
Serial.print(strax + stray + straz + strgx + strgy + strgz); //返回协议数据包
#endif
	                    				
projectImage

完成了~

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